[Review article] In vivo Dosimetry in External Beam Photon Radiotherapy: Requirements and Future Directions for Research, Development and Clinical Practice


In vivo dosimetry in external beam photon radiotherapy: Requirements and future directions for research, development, and clinical practice

Igor Olaciregui-Ruiza,⁎, Sam Beddarb, Peter Greerc, Nuria  Jornetd, Boyd McCurdye, Gabriel Paiva-Fonsecaf, Ben Mijnheera, Frank Verhaegenf

a Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
b Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
c Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital and University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
d Servei de Radiofísica i Radioprotecció, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
e Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
f Department of Radiation Oncology (Maastro), GROW School for Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, the Netherlands


External beam radiotherapy with photon beams is a highly accurate treatment modality, but requires extensive quality assurance programs to confirm that radiation therapy will be or was administered appropriately. In vivo dosimetry (IVD) is an essential element of modern radiation therapy because it provides the ability to catch treatment delivery errors, assist in treatment adaptation, and record the actual dose delivered to the patient. However, for various reasons, its clinical implementation has been slow and limited. The purpose of this report is to stimulate the wider use of IVD for external beam radiotherapy, and in particular of systems using electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). After documenting the current IVD methods, this report provides detailed software, hardware and system requirements for in vivo EPID dosimetry systems in order to help in bridging the current vendor-user gap. The report also outlines directions for further development and research. In vivo EPID dosimetry vendors, in collaboration with users across multiple institutions, are requested to improve the un-derstanding and reduce the uncertainties of the system and to help in the determination of optimal action limits for error detection. Finally, the report recommends that automation of all aspects of IVD is needed to help facilitate clinical adoption, including automation of image acquisition, analysis, result interpretation, and re-porting/documentation. With the guidance of this report, it is hoped that widespread clinical use of IVD will be significantly accelerated.